Internet Safety Resources For Parents And Kids

ttt-logoTalking with your child about Internet safety can seem overwhelming, but there are some excellent resources available to help.

Remember, protecting your kids online starts with protecting your computer from viruses and malware. Teach your kids to use strong, unique passwords, and to avoid oversharing photos and personal information. Monitor the sites your kids visit and the apps and devices they use. Create family rules concerning online time. Encourage your kids to tell you if they encounter anything that makes them feel uncomfortable, such as cyberbullying or inappropriate content.

Here are some of the tools I use when teaching families and schools about online safety.

Basic Computer Security Tips

Parental Controls

Internet Safety For Kids

Internet Safety For Teens

Cyberbullying

Social Media Safety

Cell Phone Safety

More Internet Safety Information For Parents

 

Ransomware Spreads Across The Globe: How To Protect Your Computer

A ransomware worm is rapidly taking over computers around the world. Here’s what you need to know to protect your computers and networks.

This particular worm, known by several names including WannaCry and WCry, is a type of computer virus called ransomware. Ransomware, as regular Tech Tips readers know, is especially nasty because it hijacks your computer and encrypts your data, then demands a ransom to decrypt it. A worm is a virus that worms its way through computer networks. Therefore, as you can imagine, a ransomware worm has the potential to wreak havoc worldwide. And that’s exactly what WannaCry and its variants are doing.

Your best protection is prevention. While this virus can be removed, the data it encrypts CANNOT be decrypted. Experts typically recommend not paying the ransom, as there is no guarantee you will recover your data even if you do. A current offline backup is the only way to preserve your information in the event of a ransomware attack.

Windows users, update NOW. If you’re on an old version of Windows and can’t update (anything except Win7, Win8.1, and Win10), this is your wake-up call to upgrade to a newer version. Yes, they released an XP patch. No, that doesn’t mean XP is safe. It means they had to patch XP because it’s used so widely in critical environments like hospitals. And that was an unprecedented move, as Microsoft had previously declared that XP would receive no further security updates. That indicates how serious the situation is. Microsoft has more information about supported versions of Windows on their Windows end-of-support page.

And, everyone – BACK UP YOUR DATA. Seriously. Back it up. Right now. Mac users, you too, you’re not immune to ransomware. Everybody BACK UP YOUR DATA ON A SEPARATE NON-NETWORKED DRIVE AND KEEP IT OFFLINE.

RIGHT. NOW. (Here’s my latest Tech Tips article on backups for Windows and Mac.)

Spread the word. Tell everyone: business associates, friends, family, neighbors, random strangers. Send them a link to this article and remind them to back up and update their computers immediately.

If you’ve already been affected by the WannaCry worm, here’s some information that can help.

How To Create Strong Passwords (2017 Edition)

It’s more important than ever to make sure you’re using strong, unique passwords. Passwords are one of your main defenses against computer viruses, account hijacking, and other Internet threats.

Several major sites have experienced security incidents over the last year. Hacks from years ago are still having repercussions in the present because people keep re-using old passwords. Never re-use passwords! Create passphrases that are at least 12 characters long and different on every site. Use two-factor authentication where available. You’ll find more details on this below.

Why You Need Strong, Unique Passwords

Many people say to me, “I don’t need a secure password. I don’t have anything sensitive on my computer, so I don’t care if a hacker gets in.” You, my friends, are a hacker’s dream. Because it’s not necessarily your personal information they want, although they’ll happily steal your credit card info if they can. No, what they really want is control of your computer, your email address, your Facebook page… anything and everything that will let them do their dirty work from behind a smokescreen.

Selling account details can be a lucrative business. Don’t let complacency make you a target.

Strong passwords must be:

  • Not in use on any other system
    This is perhaps the biggest no-no in the password rulebook. When hackers nab passwords, they try the same account/password combinations on popular sites like Google, Facebook, Twitter. If you’re using the same password you just let them in. Do not ever, ever, ever use the same password anywhere. Before you despair, keep reading. There are tools to make it easier.
  • Changed regularly
    Yes, you have to change your passwords. And yes, they still have to be different everywhere. In fact this is one of the best things you can do to secure your passwords. Use a password management tool if you need help keeping track of everything (see below).
  • 12 characters or longer
    Think passphrase rather than password. The longer and more complex a password is, the less likely it can be cracked. A few sites may not let you use a password as long as 12 characters, so use the longest password you can.
  • A mix of upper- and lowercase letters, numbers, and symbols
    Some systems won’t allow you to use a range of characters in your password, in which case I suggest you reconsider using that site. Do you really trust someone who isn’t going to allow you to secure your account properly? Makes you wonder how secure everything else on the site is.
  • Not common words or proper nouns found in a dictionary
    Here’s a list of the 25 worst passwords, updated for 2016. If your passwords sound like these, change them now.
  • Not the names of your spouse, kids, pets, or other personally identifying information
    Don’t create passwords out of information that can be gleaned about you, and don’t share information that can be used to guess security questions. For example, if you have pictures of your dog Fido on Facebook, and you also answer your bank’s security question “What’s your dog’s name?” with “Fido,” guess what? You have just given a hacker potential access to your bank account.

Examples of good and bad passwords

Good passwords (but don’t use these!)

AP@ssw0rdIJustMADE!UP!4U
Here’sAnOtHeR1FOR$You

Bad passwords

password
password1
password!
123456
<blank>
mypassword
spouse’s name
pet’s name

Password Don’ts…

  • Don’t rotate between the same two or three passwords. It’s just as bad as using the same password everywhere.
  • Don’t send passwords via sites like email, Facebook, Twitter. Use another means like text message, which goes directly to the recipient. Or even better, a phone call.
  • Don’t stick passwords on Post-It notes. Whether it’s under the keyboard or on a bulletin board, it’s exposed. Be like Gandalf: Keep it secret, keep it safe.
  • Don’t share passwords and accounts. This is especially prevalent in small businesses. Don’t create one account then share the password; create multiple accounts for each person who needs access. More time consuming? Sure. More secure? You bet.

Tools to manage your secure passwords

With a password management tool such as 1PasswordLastPass, or KeePass, all you have to remember is one master password and the software takes care of the rest. You can use the same password management tool on your computer and on your mobile devices.

Unfortunately any company can be breached by hackers and password management firms are no exception, as was demonstrated by a recent LastPass breach. In other words, passwords stored in management tools can be swept up in data breaches just like any other kind of data.

The good news is that most password managers encrypt your data, so even if hackers get hold of it, they will hopefully be hard-pressed to recover your actual passwords. That being said, you need to safeguard your master password with more vigilance than any other password you use. Please do NOT re-use your master password anywhere else! And be sure to keep another copy of your passwords somewhere safe in case you lose access to your password management tool.

Two-factor authentication

Two-factor authentication (2FA) uses a password plus another unique identifier, like a passcode messaged to your phone. This is much safer than a password alone because the second identifier is constantly changing, making it much harder to break into an account. If a site offers 2FA, you should consider using it.

However, 2FA does not make a weak password safe. Your best bet is 2FA plus an excellent password. As with a password manager’s master password, you need to make absolutely sure you have copies of your 2FA backup codes, because that’s what’s going to get you into your account if you have trouble.

Password harvesting scams

Password harvesters are everywhere. For example, you might get a spam email saying you need to update your account. This message contains links to a page that looks like the real login, but it’s really just a fake designed to steal your credentials. Similarly, password-harvesting scams can be distributed via Facebook, Twitter, and other social media sites. When in doubt, type the address for the site into your Web browser manually rather than clicking on a link.

Why not take this opportunity to change your passwords? It’s the best thing you can do to protect yourself against identity theft and cybercrime.

[Originally posted in 2010 as How To Create Secure Passwords. This version has been updated with the latest advice on secure passwords.]

 

Seven Ways To Fix A Slow Computer

Does your Windows or Mac computer seem to get slower every day? Try these seven techniques to speed up your system.

Reboot your computer
Most people know that rebooting can fix computer problems. What you may not know is that turning off the power by shutting down (called a cold boot) does a better job than simply using the restart command (a warm boot). If you hibernate your computer, you should give it a reboot now and then to clear any sleep-related snafus.

Scan for viruses and malware
Your next troubleshooting step should be to scan for viruses and malware using your usual antivirus program. Remember, some viruses can sneak past your computer’s defenses, which is why it’s important to watch what you click. Preventing viruses is easier than trying to remove them.

Run a cleanup utility
Cleanup utilities take care of little problems before they become big ones. Two of my favorites are CCleaner for Windows and Sierra Cache Cleaner for Mac. Watch out for computer viruses masquerading as cleaning utilities.

Reboot your network
If other devices are also slow, your network may be the culprit. Try rebooting by turning your router and/or modem off, then on again.

Install software updates
Updates fix bugs that can cause computers to slow down or crash. Keeping your computer updated helps to avoid these software bugs and keeps your computer more secure.

Quit apps when not in use
You should always quit apps when you’re not using them. Many people simply click out of the active window but leave the app running, which uses up extra memory and slows down your computer.

Add more memory
You may be able to add more memory to your computer. Check your manufacturer’s web site for configuration options.

Don’t forget to sign up to receive Tech Tips by email and follow Tech Tips on Facebook for the latest tech support advice for Windows and Mac.

Ways To Improve Your Wireless Network Signal

ttt-logoIf you’ve ever suffered from slow WiFi, you’re not alone. But there are a number of easy things you can do to try to speed up your wireless network.

The most common wireless problem I encounter is poor access point placement. Wireless access points should be placed as high as possible, such as on a bookshelf, and away from sources of interference like speakers and landline phones.

Building construction is also a factor. Try moving your computer in relation to the access point. If possible, line-of-sight gives best performance.

If you have an older wireless router, consider replacing it. The newer devices have improved speeds and are better at resisting interference. Similarly, older computers will be slower on wireless networks.

Make sure it’s a wireless problem and not an overall network problem. If you’re still experiencing slowness when you plug in your computer manually, it’s not just the wireless. Try rebooting your router and/or modem according to your Internet provider’s instructions. Using a surge protector will prevent equipment damage due to brownouts or blackouts.

If there is a virus infestation on your network, this can also cause a slowdown as the virus tries to call home to its command servers. Run antivirus scans on all computers, and be especially wary of ransomware.

 

Why You Need To Delete Your Old Accounts

ttt-logoMost people let old accounts languish. But abandoned accounts are filled with information that can be used to send spam, spread malvertising, and commit cybercrimes.

For example, I frequently get email messages from people I know, but haven’t talked to in a while. Invariably the email subject is blank or says nothing but, “Re:”. Sometimes the email includes a suspicious attachment. And I sigh and delete the message, because I know these unused accounts have been hijacked from their unsuspecting owners and are now controlled by hackers.

But hijacked accounts go beyond mere annoyance. They are often used to hack other, juicier targets, making it more difficult for such electronic attacks to be traced back to the perpetrator. They can also be used in online financial scams, such as the “I’m stuck overseas and need you to wire me money” scam. Such scams appear far more realistic when they come from a seemingly-legitimate source like a friend’s email address rather than some random account, and many people fall for the trick.

Hijacked accounts can also be used to hijack other accounts like Facebook, Twitter, or even your bank account, if it’s been linked to them. It’s like a stepping stone to the rest of your stuff.

For these reasons, you should always delete old accounts if you are no longer using them. If you’re concerned that someone will take your old username, I recommend maintaining your old accounts by logging into them every few months and using strong passwords that have not been used on any other site.

You will need your username and password for the account you wish to delete. If you don’t have it, you typically need to follow the site’s procedures to recover a forgotten password before you can continue the deletion or deactivation process. Don’t forget to remove the deleted address from other accounts if it’s been linked to them, such as an old email address linked to your Facebook account.

You should note, however, that just because a site claims your account has been deleted, it may not necessarily have been. Many sites retain old accounts in case you want to reactivate them later. Also, your data may not be deleted even if you request it. Over the years any information you’ve stored online has doubtless been copied to untold backups and mirror servers. In reality, once your data is on the Internet, it’s out there forever. But at least by deactivating or deleting your accounts, you can help keep them (and the data they contain) from being used for nefarious purposes.

Here’s how to delete or deactivate your accounts on a variety of popular sites, old and new.

 

Security Basics For Mac Users

appleIf you’re not protecting your Mac from Internet threats, your computer can easily be overcome by viruses and malware. But running antivirus isn’t enough. Mac users also need to be just as aware of scams, fake apps, and other Internet dangers as their Windows counterparts. Here are some resources to get you started.

If you’d like to know more about Mac security, stay tuned to Tech Tips via Facebook, Twitter, and RSS, or subscribe by email.

Mac Antivirus Programs

Mac Security Help

Tech Tips – Recommended Advice For Mac Users

How To Protect Your Web Browser

browserYour Web browser lets you access Internet sites, but it can also be a gateway for viruses, malware, and more. Here’s how to keep your browser protected and secure.

(Don’t miss my latest article for The Northwest Herald – Protect Your Window To The Internet by Triona Guidry)

Remember that it’s vital to keep your browser up to date. If you can’t run an updated browser, you may need to consider an alternate browser or even a computer upgrade. Old computers running outdated browsers are holy grails to hackers and virus-writers because they’re so easy to infect. The US-CERT web site has detailed information about how and why you need to protect your Web browser.

Your computer’s default Web browser is Internet Explorer for Windows, and Safari for Mac. Here’s some information about how to secure them. Bear in mind that software manufacturers don’t provide security updates for outdated versions of their browsers, which may be why you don’t see yours here.

Internet Explorer (Microsoft)

Safari (Apple)

Alternate browsers include Mozilla Firefox, Google Chrome, and Opera, among others.

Do you have questions about securing your Web browser? Ask in the comments, and don’t forget to follow Tech Tips on Facebook and @trionaguidry on Twitter.

Windows XP Is Dead. Now What?

Windows XPAs you may have heard, Microsoft has ceased support for Windows XP. Many people assume it’s okay to keep using it. They’re dead wrong.

WinXP is already vulnerable to viruses because it’s been out so long. Now we have the nightmare scenario in which bugs are discovered but not fixed. Here’s how it goes: Microsoft announces a security vulnerability and offers patches for Win7 and Win8. The hackers rub their hands with glee and start testing to see if WinXP has the same vulnerability. Lo and behold it does, and they have an easy way to sneak into your computer.

Like the recently discovered Internet Explorer bug, which gives hackers a way to take over your entire system. It’s the first major vulnerability since XP’s demise. We know the bug exists in IE under XP. At first Microsoft said they weren’t going to patch it for XP, but now they’ve changed their minds. The question is, what about the next big bug? Using WinXP is like leaving your front door keys in the lock with a sign that says “Come on in, the best valuables are right over there!”

This isn’t a marketing gimmick or a way to increase PC sales, though I’m sure tech vendors don’t mind if you give them money. This is about you and the real-world repercussions of a hacked computer. Do you want your bank accounts wiped out? Do you want your identity stolen? Do you want your online identities hijacked? If not, then get off Windows XP.

Some of you will decide you don’t want to upgrade. That’s up to you, but I strongly recommend you reconsider. A very few of you – less than you think – will have some business-critical function that requires XP. Unless you are in that infinitesimal group, upgrade now.

What are your choices? Windows 7, Windows 8, or Mac. I did a rundown on them a while back based on a question from a reader. At this time, my recommendation stands at Windows 7 or Mac depending on your preference, with Windows 8 a distant runner-up due to its unfamiliar interface and lack of apps. Or, you could go pure mobile with tablet and smart phone.

For those of you who really, truly, honestly cannot upgrade from Windows XP, you have my condolences and some advice:

  • Use a browser other than Internet Explorer. Never use IE even for a moment.
  • Make sure you have the last round of updates Microsoft offered for XP. You can still use Automatic Updates to install them.
  • Run a good antivirus program.
  • Double-check regularly with Malwarebytes and CCleaner.
  • Don’t use Windows XP for finances or online purchasing. Ever. Your smart phone is safer at this point and I don’t advocate using smart phones for finances.
  • Don’t use WinXP to access social media sites (Facebook, Twitter, etc). Social media is a virus cesspool and you don’t have a lifejacket.
  • Plan your upgrade. This is not a permanent solution. Eventually your PC will fail and you will have to replace it.

Do you have questions about Windows XP’s end of support? Ask in the comments, and don’t forget to subscribe to Tech Tips by email and follow on Facebook. You can also follow @trionaguidry on Twitter.

Cryptolocker: Why Modern Computer Viruses Are More Dangerous Than Ever

crypt-messageToday’s computer viruses go beyond mere annoyance. How does holding your data for ransom sound? What about spying on you through your webcam, tracking your physical location, recording every keystroke you make? Welcome to the modern generation of computer threats, where infection means real-world consequences.

The latest virus making the rounds is Cryptolocker, a textbook example of all the truly nasty ways in which a modern computer virus can ruin your day. Cryptolocker encrypts your data with a one-way algorithm which mathematically cannot be reversed. If you don’t pay the ransom within the timeframe, the only key to your data is gone, kaput, goodbye.

You can’t restore your data by removing Cryptolocker, because removing the virus doesn’t decrypt the data. No tech support person in the world can decrypt it for you because it’s simply not possible without the key. Even police departments have paid the ransom, even as they recommend that consumers not do so.

Here are some resources on Cryptolocker so you can keep it from digging its sharp claws into your computer.

Cryptolocker started its initial spread via email attachments, which are fairly easy to avoid. But now it’s morphing into variants that can be transmitted via USB drive, and luring victims with fake software activation codes. Although it’s a Windows virus, like all viruses it can be transmitted via Macs and mobile devices. Following in the steps of other viruses, soon Cryptolocker will evolve into spreading via social media sites.

And this is just the start.

There are other viruses out there that can activate webcams – and yes, they can bypass the green light that tells you the webcam is on. They can listen through microphones. They can track your location via your mobile device. They can listen in on your conversations on social media.

Now, more than ever, it’s vital to protect yourself from computer viruses. Here are some Tech Tips resources to help:

Have you run into Cryptolocker or other similarly destructive viruses? Share in the comments, and don’t forget to subscribe to Tech Tips by email and follow on Facebook. You can also follow @trionaguidry on Twitter.